Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries

TBI Attorneys Handling all Forms of Brain Damage Claims in NJ

Traumatic brain injuries are very different from other forms of injury. They also vary significantly from one person to the next. Some TBI’s result in immediate brain damage, known as primary injuries. Others may be secondary injuries, which accumulate over time after an initial event. Immediate head trauma may cause complications such as bleeding, bruising, torn tissue, nerve damage, swelling, or inflammation. As for secondary injuries, these typically involve other processes or functions within the body that occur in reaction to initial injury. Traumatic brain injury sufferers and their loved ones should be aware of the various types of TBI and the potential long-term effects. Depending on the specific form of brain injury that a person sustained, they may be profoundly affected for the rest of their life.

If you have questions regarding the legal aspects of a traumatic brain injury case in New Jersey, please contact Fronzuto Law Group at 973-435-4551 to speak with a knowledgeable brain injury attorney who can help. Our team represents children, adolescents, and adults seeking compensation for TBI-related injuries throughout the state. We can walk you through the entire legal process and our representation will cost you nothing, unless we achieve a recovery.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

There are several ways that traumatic injuries affecting the head and brain occur and may be understood. The first way to address various types of TBI involves the actual categories of events that fall under this umbrella. Specifically, a traumatic brain injury may involve:

  • Open head injury: when something penetrates the skull
  • Closed head injury: damage to the brain that occurs without skull penetration (commonly occurs in the form of concussions)
  • Oxygen deprivation: a reduced amount of oxygen (known as hypoxia), or lack of oxygen (known as anoxia), to the brain resulting from any cause can lead to brain cell death and permanent brain damage in just a few short minutes.
  • Stroke: a stroke can result in brain damage in several ways, by blocking necessary blood and oxygen flow to the brain, or through bleeding in the brain itself that causes surrounding tissue to die.
  • Brain tumors: if a tumor begins to develop in the brain, it can create intracranial pressure or invade the surrounding brain tissue, causing damage.
  • Infections and viruses: infections in the brain or viruses affecting the brain such as meningitis, can attack its vital membranes and cause permanent harm.
  • Environmental toxins: a variety of toxic substances may cause brain injuries, including lead and carbon monoxide.

What does TBI do to the Brain?

Another way to understand traumatic brain injuries involves the type of damage a TBI causes to the brain. Brain injuries can affect a single region of the brain, which is called a focal injury, or they can be more pervasive, impacting a larger area, also known as a diffuse injury. Depending on the type of injury, the way that the brain is affected can range significantly. Some of the most common traumatic brain injuries are explained in greater detail below.


Concussions are considered a mild form of traumatic brain injury. These injuries may be caused by a variety of events, including a blow to the head or sudden, sharp jolting. Depending on the circumstances, concussions can cause loss of consciousness few a few seconds, minutes, or hours. In some cases, a concussion will not “knock a person out” but will lead to a momentary alteration in awareness and sensory capabilities. Since concussions exist on a wide spectrum, some may be recovered from very quickly, while others may take months to fully resolve.


Bleeding in the brain may occur when the blood vessels in the head suffer damage. It can occur inside the brain itself or in the area surrounding the brain. When blood pools in the tissues around the blood vessels, this is called a hematoma. There are several types of hematomas, including epidural hematomas (bleeding between the skull and the dura mater), subdural hematomas (bleeding between the dura and the arachnoid mater), and intracerebral hematoma (bleeding into the brain itself).

Skull Fracture

A skull fracture occurs when one or more bones that make up the skull experience cracking or breaking. These injuries typically happen as a result of head trauma and may spell serious repercussions for the structures in the brain itself. For instance, skull fractures have been known to cause broken blood vessels, torn membranes, damage to brain tissues, and other complications.

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)

A diffuse axonal injuries (DAI) occur when there is large-scale damage to the white matter in the brain. White matter is made up of axons, which transmit electrical impulses from specific areas of the brain to other areas. DAI’s occur as a result of diffuse axonal shearing, which refers to the brain being rapidly moved back and forth inside the skull. The brain and its axons begin to stretch and compress, which may lead to tearing of the axons, known as axonal shearing. When the axon is torn, the nueron dies. Since the axon and neuron are an integral component of the brain’s white matter, damage to these structures also results in white matter damage. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) can be extremely severe and may cause permanent cognitive impairments as well as psychological changes and physical disabilities.

Get Help with a Brain Injury Case in New Jersey

If you are looking for an attorney who can examine the circumstances of your brain injury case and discuss the likelihood of bringing a successful lawsuit, contact the seasoned New Jersey brain injury attorneys at our firm for immediate assistance. We have recovered millions on behalf of individuals with injuries like these, including nearly $15 million for a young boy in Passaic County with a traumatic brain injury. Contact us at (973)-435-4551 or seek advice about your claim or schedule an appointment with our legal team by filling out our convenient online form.


Traumatic Brain Injury: Hope Through Research, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

Practice Areas

Our attorneys advocate for those who suffer injuries due to the negligence of physicians, nurses, other health care professionals, hospitals, and medical facilities.

Medical Malpractice

Our team addresses the most complex of pediatric malpractice cases, including rare conditions such as craniosynostosis and plagiocephaly.

Pediatric Malpractice

Our firm represents individuals who are injured by improperly designed and manufactured products, including pharmaceuticals and medical devices, auto products, and sporting equipment.


Our attorneys advocate for those who suffer injuries due to the negligence of physicians, nurses, other health care professionals, hospitals, and medical facilities.

Wrongful Death

If you or your child suffers from a birth injury, Fronzuto Law Group can help.

Birth Injuries

Recent BlogPosts

  • June, 2024

    Filing a Lawsuit for Tepezza-Related Hearing Loss

    Current Status of Tepezza Litigation – Class Action Lawsuit for Tepezza Numerous lawsuits against Horizon Therapeutics, the makers of Tepezza, are currently coordinated in multidistrict litigation (MDL) in federal court. The class action lawsuits arise from the drug’s connection to detrimental side effects, which include hearing loss, deafness, and tinnitus. The link between Tepezza and […]

  • May, 2024

    Medical Malpractice with Bariatric Surgery

    Gastric Bypass Surgery Malpractice Attorneys in New Jersey With nearly one-third of the adult population in the United States overweight or obese, it is no wonder that gastric bypass surgery is a standard procedure in hospitals across the nation. Individuals seeking weight loss undergo gastric bypass surgery, or stomach stapling, to help them with weight management that […]

  • May, 2024

    Determining if You May be Eligible for Compensation in an Ozempic Lawsuit

    Pending Litigation for Ozempic Complications and What it Could Mean for You Since its 2017 debut, Ozempic, a diabetes and weight loss drug, has attracted millions of innocent users. The semaglutide injectable is a prescription drug for Type 2 diabetics, but weight loss seekers also use the drug to regulate their sugar levels and manage […]


Free Case

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.